Where are they?
Found in the GIT, endotoxin-containing gram-negative bacteria are ever-present in varying amounts. They can be found outside the gut in feed, feces, and even the air. From here, they can enter animals through the feed, the environment, and even as a bioaerosol through the respiratory tract. Once ingested, they are then excreted via the feces to repeat the cycle. Since it is cyclical, high levels of endotoxins can have a compounding presence in livestock stables. A high presence of endotoxins is not only a threat to animals but also the workers on the farm or even people living near a farm.
When do they occur?
Though gram-negative bacteria is always present at some level in the gut. There are many factors that can increase translocation, release, and potentialization of endotoxins:
- Changes in microbiota
- Antibiotics use
- Heat stress
- Contaminated feed
- Disturbed gut barrier
Main benefits of
- Powerful adsorption of toxins (myco- and endotoxins)
- Optimal health and performance
- Stable in feed, both during production and in the GIT